PreK-3rd: Raising the Educational Performance of English Language Learners (ELLs)

January 1, 2011


Dale Russakoff

English Language Learners (ELLs) lag far behind all other students, except those with disabilities, on state reading and math assessments. A high-quality PreK-3rd grade education, with aligned standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessments, is the most economical and effective route to the "meaningful education" promised to ELLs in the Lau v. Nichols lawsuit over 40 years ago.

APA Citation: 

Russakoff, D. (2011). PreK-3rd: Raising the educational performance of English language learners (ELLs). New York: Foundation for Child Development. 


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