This paper provides a snapshot of how student achievement data are being used in teacher evaluation systems today and illuminates the issues causing states and school districts the most struggles. Most states are using one or some combination of three evaluation approaches: student learning objectives, shared assessments, and shared attribution; each of these approaches carries its own risks and opportunities.
Bornfreund, L.A. (2013). An ocean of unknowns: Risks and opportunities in using student achievement data to evaluate PreK-3rd grade teachers. Washington, D.C.: New America Foundation.
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